The Hopi and Their Jewelry

Hopi Silver Overlay Jewelry

The jewelry of the Hopi has a style distinct from that of the other Native Americans. The Hopi are known for the use of silver overlay, which utilizes a technique of fusing two layers of silver. The eye-catching and often elaborate design is on the top layer, while the bottom layers serves as a base.

It was not so long ago that the Hopi developed this technique. In fact the Hopi were not much into the making of silver. In their relative isolation on the northeastern Arizona high plains, or mesas, they were somewhat firewalled (so to speak) against external influences. Even their interaction with other Native Americans was limited.

Silversmithing of Native Americans

So while the Navajo learned and developed their silversmithing skills, a technique brought to the south-west of the American continent by the Spaniards, and which was then taken up by the Zuni, the Hopi were still practicing their own artistic heritage based on weaving and pottery. They were also adept at the making of kachina dolls, for which they deservedly remain renowned.

Time, of course, would not stand still, and even reliably isolated communities began to open up. Trading and commerce grew and the Hopi through their interaction with the Zuni exposed them to the craft of silver jewelry, at which the Zuni were now skilled. Lanyade, a Zuni, learned his silversmithing from the Navajo, and began to sell his silver jewelry. He travelled among the Hopi and Sikyatala became his student in 1898.

Sikyatala

Sikyatala is credited to be the first Hopi silversmith. It is reported that while Lanyade was at the Hopi reservation for four months, making and selling his silver jewelry pieces, Sikyatala was studiously observing and learning from the master at close range.

Sikyatala then began to use the technique of making silver jewelry. Other Hopi also began to follow and emulate the work of Sikyatala. In time the Hopi developed their own style, that of using overlay silver.

Hopi Silversmiths Paul Saufie and Fred Kabote

This technique did not so much evolve as was created by the Hopi silversmiths Paul Saufkie and Fred Kabote who were involved in a program at the Museum of Northern Arizona in 1938. After World War II the Hopi Guild was formed to encourage a program of silversmith training .

The designs of the silver overlay jewelry of the Hopi were also unique in that they adapted designs from the old broken pottery pieces of the 15th and 16th centuries. New motifs were also incorporated by the Hopi Guild, including kachina symbols.

The cross-currents in Native American jewelry nowdays mean that there are cross-influences as well. And different styles from the different currents may well find themselves evident in any piece of modern American Native jewelry.

But the fascinating development of Native American silversmiths and their crafts, in their different streams of artistic design, does not entirely obscure the original creativity. The silver overlay technique was the creation of the Hopi, even if it may now be employed by others.

Michael Kabotie

In ending, it may be noted that the work of Fred Kabote was continued by his son Michael Kabote (also spelled 'Kabotie'). Michael Kabotie recently passed away at the age of 67. He was a trail-blazer in the Native American fine arts movement, both as a Hopi artist and jeweler. His paintings were well-received, depicting traditional Hopi life. For a number of years, he also tapped the Hopi overlay technique at the Idyllwild Arts program in Southern California.

Learning Hebrew in Easy Steps

Learning the Hebrew language requires an investment of time and effort just like in the case of any other language. Hebrew is one of the oldest languages ​​in the world. Moreover; across the globe there are countless individuals who communicate in this language. Today the world is home to seven million individuals who speak Hebrew. It is the official language of the state of Israel as most of the Hebrew-speaking population is settled there. Hebrew can be segregated on the basis of modern and Biblical Hebrew due to the significant changes that have occurred in the language.

One of the major reasons why some people want to learn Hebrew is the fact that this language has a strong history which contributions people. Also, the Old Testament portion of the Bible was originally written in an ancient form of this language and there are countless other religious books that are available only in Hebrew.

How quickly students learn Hebrew depends on a lot of factors which also include the deduction of the student. The process of learning the Hebrew language can be augmented by:

1. Watching Hebrew movies

2. Reading Hebrew literature

3. Or even listening to Hebrew music etc.

There are many individuals who read children's story books in Hebrew to grasp the basics of the language and allow them to better understand the grammar and vocabulary. Those individuals who native language is not Hebrew or another Semantic language will find it difficult to learn in the beginning. However; as they understand the basics of the language better, they will realize that Hebrew grammar is logical and simple with fewer words than in other languages. Unlike English, this language is written from right to left and its script is called Rashi.

In almost all the online courses, the basic lessons in the Hebrew language start with their alphabet. There are twenty two letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The next stage covers the vowels which are referred to as the nikkud. Since the letters in the Hebrew language can be converted into vowels using tittles and dashes, it can become confusing for students; but with practice they will grasp a better understanding of the language.

Perfecting the pronunciation of Hebrew is the key to learning the language. This is the reason online lesson plans are supplemented with audio files to help students in pronouncing the letters and the words in the correct manner. These courses focus both on the correct usage of the vocabulary and grammar. Advanced Hebrew online courses make use of video and audio files to aid their students in understanding this language to their best.

Link Exchanges or Business Development Strategy

Viewing the ever growing issue and concern of Link Exchanges and the method by which they are being performed, I can clearly say to every white hat SEO consultant that WE HAVE A PROBLEM.

I myself as a manager in several organizations receive my share of irrelevant and sometimes incorporating changes of link invitations from companies / organizations that have absolutely no relevance to my area of ​​business and / or complementary industry. I am always amazed that those companies portrays them in such a poor manner.

The Common Method

It is a known fact that links are a major concern for every site owner or SEO consultant looking for better rankings and higher PR. Today site owners and even some SEO consultants do not care where they get the links, sending thousands of e-mails through automated programs to whichever company / website that comes across their path. These companies work on a pure statistical assumption that out of all these thousands, few individuals will agree to the exchange.

The problem with this method is that most of us today regards Link Exchange as nothing more than another form of spam. This results in a built up resistance in cooperation to take part in a Link Exchange program as it may indicate your website as a non professional website.

I believe that part of the solution to this problem is for anyone who is looking for SEO consulting to take better care as to who he / she chooses and to take some involvement in the process of his / her company's representation to the world.

Link Exchanges as a Business Development Strategy

After years of conducting Link Exchange activity for my business and those of my clients I started noticeing the effect this program brought to my clients. I further surprised how we could create a more organized and thought-out effect from the beginning.

The Effect: The effect that started to happen for my clients was that slowly but surely they were gaining international contacts and forming business relationships with distant partners, thus enabling them easier access to their local clients and free promotion of their name. It also brought activity into their circle of contacts and other business associates. That of course led to formal relations which evolved into a full international network with a sole existence to serve the respected clients of the international network's members.

Creating the Effect

The development from this point was very natural, as it was logical to assume as a multilateral SEO expert that the bridging between cultural differences and forming the same kinds of relationships with local companies and in their own language will add to the tremendous strength of this business possibility. This is exactly what we did, realizing that giving time and attention to the type of companies you are contacting and industries you are targeting is imperative to the success of your Link Exchange campaign.

Many times I have heard that Link Exchanges work on statistics and the more you send the more links you will have. This theory may be true but the quality of the link is affected by this method, and not to mention the constant depletion of the internet resources such as SERP and directories while e-mailing in ignorance.

You will get more links and much more directed traffic and generated business if you take time and thought to the quality of your Link Exchange program. This had taken a remarkable effect for all the companies I consult and work with and will have the same effect for you.

Another excellent way to broaden the Link Exchange program is to contact the most desirable of exchanges and explain the idea of ​​business development opportunities that may be involved in such an exchange.

Conclusion

To summarize my thoughts and experience on the matter, the link exchange program will stop having a negative effect on the SEO industry, if professionals and non professionals will give the time and attention this major issue records.

I believe that with the simple and familiar advice I have passed along with this short article, there is great potential to create healthy Link Exchange programs where users will truly benefit from the links posted on ones website. Do not forget this is the first and primary reason for the Link Exchange program to exist and why it is effecting your ranking in such a different way.

Plan Your Wedding Cheaply – 3 Questions to Start Planning Your Perfectly-Priced, Perfect Wedding

You've been blessed with more meaning than money. You're worried that this might not be the best foundation for creating the wedding celebration you want to have. I think if you can figure out how to share your values, beliefs and dreams, you can have a wonderful wedding. Your task is to find the balance between meaning and money. Some things cost money. There's no way around that. You're going to have to decide how you want to allocate your money, plunking down cash where it's important and smoothing over the places where it matters less to you.

How to create your perfectly priced wedding?

  1. Outline your wedding ceremony . Figure out what goes in a wedding ceremony. What's going to take you from engaged to married. (No, I'm not talking about the legal stuff!) I'm wondering what you want to tell your community about how you love one another. They're going to want to support you, but you have to let them know what it is you want them to support.
  2. Work on your wedding vows . What do you want to promise one other about your making a marriage that works? You want to build your wedding to your skills, values, beliefs and dreams about your marriage, so that you wind up with the marriage that you want. You've invited your guests to your wedding to witness your wedding vows. What do you want them to hear, support and celebrate?
  3. Figure out your wedding budget . How much money do you really have to spend? Given that the theme of your wedding day is your wedding ceremony and the community support for your wedding vows, how do you spend your money to augment those goals? You're going to spend money on creating your ceremony. Because that money is money spent on creating your marriage. What traditional pieces of the wedding reception do you want to include? What says "marriage" to you? Once you allocate your moneys, you're going to have to agree to stick to that budget.

Taking the time to work through these issues before you get started on your planning can go a long way to keeping your wedding modest in expenses and rich in meaning. The richness of meaning will make for a fabulous wedding ceremony. It will also be the thing that keeps you involved and celebrating your marriage many years from now. And that's what you want. How about it? You save money and create a great marriage. Now that's a bargain!